Groundwater Remediation – Chemical and Biological Injections

Posted on June 15th, 2021

Groundwater injection for remediation

JM Sorge, Inc. has been involved in countless environmental cases involving the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in soil and groundwater.  These contaminants can be found at sites ranging from large industrial properties to dry cleaners due to subsurface discharges (e.g., septic systems) or surficial spills.  Due to their persistent nature,  all potential sources need to be investigated in order to design a successful remediation strategy.

In situations where contaminant concentrations in groundwater do not readily degrade, remedial injections can be conducted to accelerate the natural degradation process.  JMS has conducted a wide variety of chemical and biological injections on sites to address lingering groundwater contamination.  Several different injection mixtures can be used depending on the contaminant of concern. A proposed injection plan is developed and submitted to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) for approval.  If the plan is acceptable, a Discharge to Groundwater (DGW) permit will be issued.

JMS recently performed injections at a former dry cleaner site where elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and its associated breakdown products were identified at up to 1,800 parts per billion (ppb). Initially, the soil source area was excavated to the extent practical, but was limited due to building footings and other engineering constraints.  Following excavation and off-site disposal of the impacted soil, CVOCs remained in groundwater significantly above the NJDEP’s Groundwater Quality Standards (GWQS).

To address soil source areas where excavation was not possible, as well as the residual groundwater contamination, a combination of injection methods were utilized, including abiotic (zero valent iron) and biotic (emulsified vegetable oil and the introduction of dehalococcoides bacteria).  Two months after the injections were completed, PCE was no longer detected in site groundwater. In addition, the associated breakdown products were no longer detected, with the exception of one CVOC (vinyl chloride), which will likely degrade to ethene as the remedial injections continue to occur over the next few months.  These results were extremely favorable and the amount of time that it would have taken for the contamination to degrade was reduced by several years.

JMS is always keeping up to date on the latest available remediation technology to ensure the most effective and cost-saving practices for our clients. For help with your case, please fee free to contact JMS at or at 908-218-0066.

Nicholas Mazza

Project Manager

NJDEP In-Situ Remediation Guidance:



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